English Mind

“He felt amused as an Englishman might be amused, to see a Hindu loosen his dhoti to pour some water first over his navel and then down his back in a flurry of ecstatic hymn-singing. And he watched with contemptuous displeasure the indecent behaviour of a Muhammadan walking with his hands buried deep in his trousers, purifying himself in the ritual manner, preparatory to his visit to the mosque.” (12, Anand)

Because of Bakha’s desire to live like an Englishman, he has grown a distaste for Indian culture and the behaviours he sees around him. Inwardly, his psyche begins to change as he feels “amused as an Englishman might be amused.” Despite the fact that he is of the lowest caste system, he thinks himself superior to those around him, and the description of the behaviour of those around Bakha is negative.

School-Girl Act

“‘Will you stop it?’ he demanded in a low impatient voice. ‘This isn’t the spot for the school-girl act. Listen to me. The pair of us are sitting under the gallows.’ He took hold of her wrists and made her stand up straight in front of him. ‘Talk!'”

Hammett, The Maltese Falcon, page 209

At the end of the day, being good or bad doesn’t matter- you just have to talk and try to get out as clean as possible. Spade’s choice in the end wasn’t a good one, but it was done in cunning because he knew it was the only way for him to get out. Also, at a certain point, pretending to be good and innocent does not work- your actions come up to get you (except if you’re Spade).

The Younger Son of a Duke

“Mr. Thipps, touched by this sympathetic interest in the younger son of a duke, took the liberty, on their return to the sitting-room, of offering him a cup of tea.”

Dorothy L. Sayers, Whose Body?, pg. 22

Lord Peter is the younger son of a duke, so he comes from wealth and privilege. He may not give a second thought to coming down into these cases and investigating because he is so used to having his way.


“She was at her worst- effusive, insincere. It was a great mistake to have come. He should have stayed at home and read his book, thought Peter Walsh; should have gone to a music hall; he should have stayed at home, for he knew no one. Oh dear, it was going to be a failure; a complete failure, Clarissa felt it in her bones as dear old Lord Lexham stood there apologising for his wife who had caught cold at the Buckingham Palace garden party. She could see Peter out of the tail of her eye, criticising her, there, in that corner.”

Woolf, Virginia, Mrs. Dalloway (pg. 163)

This passage shows how two people can interpret things from one another and communicate without speaking, and how those inferences may be incorrect. By putting Peter and Clarissa’s inner thoughts back to back it shows more clearly how much they are in their own heads, and how their insecurities and fears affect their connections with others. Also, their strong connection with each other is apparent in their inner thoughts- Peter notices how Clarissa seems insincere, and Clarissa notices how Peter seems to criticize her without even speaking to one another.

Religious Mind

“He offered up each of his three daily chaplets that his soul might grow strong in each of the three theological values, in faith in the Father Who had created him, in hope in the Son Who had redeemed him and his love of the Holy Ghost Who had sanctified him; and this thrice triple prayer he offered to the Three Persons through Mary in the name of her joyful and sorrowful and glorious mysteries.”

James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Pg. 125)

I love the way this passage begins to sound like a prayer, especially in the end with “her joyful and sorrowful and glorious mysteries.” There is no change in punctuation to show that this is anything different from traditional narration, but I think this is an example of the Uncle Charles principle. This is a clear tone shift from ealier in the novel- now it is noticeably more religious. As Stephen becomes more religious and a “good Catholic” his thoughts may become almost prayer-like.

Terrible Views

“It was indeed general views that were terrible; short ones, contrary to an opinion sometimes expressed, were the refuge, were the remedy.”

James, “The Middle Years,” p.341

How are general and short views different? Is it expressing the idea that focusing on smaller, more fanciful ideas takes one’s mind off of troubling things, like watching the three people on the beach? This shows how observation can be used as a tool to help someone stay refreshed and not overwhelmed by the future of their life.